Trucking Terms

An income fund set aside to supplement or provide for retirement benefits.

ABS (Anti-lock braking system)
The ABS system helps the driver retain control of the vehicle under heavy braking conditions.

Administrators (AAMVA)
A tax-exempt, nonprofit organization striving to develop model programs in motor vehicle administration, police traffic services and highway safety. The association serves as an information clearinghouse for these same disciplines, and acts as the international spokesman for these interests.

Agricultural Products
Any raw product, which is derived from agriculture, including silage, hay, straw, grain, manure, and other similar product. American Association of Motor Vehicle

Air Brake
A brake which is operated by air. The air brake system on tractors consists of air lines, valves, tanks, and an air compressor.

Air Ride Suspension
The suspension system supports the weight of the load, plus the trailer on air filled rubber bags rather than the old system which used steel springs. The compressed air is supplied by the air compressor and reservoir tanks which provide air for the air brake system.

Air Spring System
The system in which the container and plunger are separated by pressurized air. When the container and plunger attempt to squeeze together, the air compresses and produces a spring affect.

Air Tank
A reservoir for storing air for use in the air brake system. Braking would be impossible without an adequate supply of air.

American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
A non-profit, nonpartisan association representing highway and transportation departments in the 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.

Consists of items such as binders, chains, clearance lights, rub rails, and load securing devices.

Articulated vehicle
consists of two or more vehicles that are connected by a joint that can pivot.

Audit of freight bills
The process of verifying the transportation charges shown on the carrier’s freight bill as reasonable.

Authorized Personnel
Means a Certified Pilot/Escort Driver as described in MUTCD 6C.02, and also classified as a “Flagger” as set forth in Chapter 6E of the MUTCD.

Average Annual Daily Truck Traffic (AADTT)
The total volume of truck traffic on a highway segment for one year, divided by the number of days in the year.

Average gross revenue per loaded mile
Total payment received per mile traveled with a load.

A structural component to which wheels, brakes, and suspension are all attached.

Axle Weight
Weight carried by one axle.

A haul that returns you to home or base of operation.

The process of a transportation vehicle (typically a truck) returning from the original destination point to the point of origin. A backhaul can be with a full or partially loaded trailer.

Balance sheet
A financial statement listing all assets, liabilities and owner’s equity at a certain date.

Balloon Freight
Cargo which takes up a lot of space, but is very light.

The cargo-carrying vehicle that inland water carriers primarily use. Basic barges have open tops, but there are covered barges for both dry and liquid cargoes.

The distance from the truck’s front bumper to the back of its cab.

Belly Cargo
Air freight carried in the belly of passenger aircraft.

Bill of Lading
Written transportation contract between shipper and carrier

Bill of Lading
A transportation document that is the contract of carriage containing the terms and condition between shipper and carrier.

Bill of Lading
Written transportation contract between shipper and carrier (or its agents). Identifies freight, recipient, place of delivery, and terms of agreement.

Billed weight
The weight shown on a freight bill.

Blind Spot
The areas around a tractor-trailer which are not visible to the driver through the windows or mirrors.

BMC 82
Public liability surety bond filed with the FMCSA as required under 49 CFR 387.303(b)(1).

BMC 91
Motor Carrier Automobile Bodily Injury and Property Damage Liability Certificate of Insurance form as required under 49 CFR 387.303(b)(1) or (2).

A tractor operating without a trailer.

Bobtail Insurance
Insurance covering accidents during non trucking use (i.e., not hauling a load

The assembly of two or more axles, often a pair in tandem.

A section of a highway or rail network that experiences operational problems such as congestion. Bottlenecks may result from factors such as reduced roadway width or steep freeway grades that can slow trucks.

An enclosed railcar, typically 40 or more feet long, used for packaged freight and some bulk commodities.

Breakbulk Cargo
Cargo of non-uniform sizes, often transported on pallets, sacks, drums, or bags. These cargoes require labor-intensive loading and unloading processes. Examples of break bulk cargo include coffee beans, logs, or pulp.

Bridge Formula
Federal regulation of how far apart the axles must be to legally carry a given weight.

Bridge formula
a bridge protection formula used by federal and state governments to regulate the amount of weight that can be put on each of a vehicle’s axles, or the number of axles, and the distance between the axles or group of axles must be to legally carry a given weight.

A person who arranges loads for owner/operators

A person whose business it is to prepare shipping and customs documents for international shipments. Brokers often have offices at major freight gateways, including border crossings, seaports, and airports.

Bulk Cargo
Cargo that is unbound as loaded; it is without count in a loose unpackaged form. Examples of bulk cargo include coal, grain, and petroleum products.

Bulk Freight
Unpackaged freight, (for example, petroleum products)

Bulk packaging
means a packaging other than a vessel or barge, including a transport vehicle or freight container, in which hazardous materials are loaded with no intermediate form of containment and which has:

Burden of proof
The obligation to prove disputed facts at issue in a legal proceeding.

“cab” or “cabin” is the driver compartment of the truck or tractor. The cab is the area of the vehicle where the driver sits.

A national law that requires costal and intercostal traffic to be carried in its own nationally registered, and sometimes built and crewed ships.

Short for cab-over-engine, designed so that the cab sits over the engine on the chassis.

The physical facilities, personnel and process available to meet the product of service needs of the customers. Capacity generally refers to the maximum output or producing ability of a machine, a person, a process, a factory, a product, or a service.

Cargo Insurance
Insurance on the freight paid for by the carrier.

Cargo Ramp
A dedicated load/unload facility for cargo aircraft.

Cargo/Cargo Carrying Length
Means the total length of a combination of trailers and/or load measured from the foremost of the first trailer and/ or load to the rearmost of the last trailer and/or load including all coupling devices.

Quantity of freight (in tons) required to fill a railcar; amount normally required to qualify for a carload rate.

A firm which transports goods or people via land, sea or air.

Carrier’s Lien
Carrier’s claim on property it has transported as security for charges.

Cartage Company
A motor carrier that provides local pickup and delivery.

Cash Advance
Money received from carrier generally used for fuel and deducted from owner operator’s final settlement check.

Cash Disbursement Journal
A journal for keeping track of money being paid out.

Cash flow
Ready cash (net income plus set aside cash, as for depreciation).

Cash Receipts Journal
A journal for keeping track of money coming into a business.

CAT Scales
The most common type of scales at truck stops are CAT scales. These are purported to be the most accurate, and they guarantee the weight reading to be accurate, or else they’ll go to court for you and pay the fine.

CB (Citizens Band Radio)
The type of radio that’s used by truckers to communicate with each other.

Commercial Driver’s License

CDL (Commercial Drivers License)
The drivers license which authorizes individuals to operate commercial motor vehicles and buses over 26,000 pounds gross vehicle weight.

Commercial Driver’s License Information System.

Centralized Dispatching
The organization of the dispatching function into one central location. This structure often involves the use of data collection devices for communication between the centralized dispatching function, which usually reports to the production control department and the shop manufacturing departments.

Code of Federal Regulations

Chargeable Accidents
An accident that a driver could have prevented whether or not it was his fault.

Those temporary costs assumed by the carrier for independent contractors. It is understood through the lease that these costs will be charged back to the independent contractor usually at settlement.

A trailer-type device with wheels constructed to accommodate containers, which are lifted on and off.

Check Call
Calling by telephone, or using the Qualcomm system to check in with your company/dispatcher, usually once a day, early in the morning. This informs them of your progress, and any other important information a company may require.

A wedge or block for steadying a body and holding it motionless.

Charges made against a carrier for loss, damage, delay, or overcharge.

Class I Carrier
A classification of regulated carriers based upon annual operating revenues-motor carrier of property greater than or equal to $5 million; railroads: greater than or equal to $50 million: motor carriers of passengers; greater than or equal to $3 million.

Class II Carrier
A classification of regulated carriers based upon annual operating revenues-motor carrier of property $1- $5 million; railroads: $10-$50 million: motor carriers of passengers; less than or equal to $3 million.

Class III Carrier
A classification of regulated carriers based upon annual operating revenues-motor carrier of property less than or equal to $1 million; railroads: greater than or equal to $10 million.

Classification Yard
A railroad terminal area where railcars are grouped together to form train units.

Clearance Lights
The lights on top of the front and rear of the trailer; often referred to as the marker lights.

Clearing House
An organization set up to process and collect bills for participating trucking companies.

Clutch Brake
The clutch brake is engaged when you push the clutch all the way to the floor. You only do this when you’re stopped, and need to get the truck into gear.

Coastal Shipping
Also known as short-sea or coastwise shipping, describes marine shipping operations between ports along a single coast or involving a short sea crossing.


A pledge of security for borrowing money, usually a material possession.

A fuel card you’re issued by your company for you to use for fuel, oil etc.. Also can be used to receive cash advances.

Blank checks you receive from your company to get cash advances when you’re on the road, or for certain truck expenses, lumpers, etc. When you need a cash advance, you tell your dispatcher how much money you need, and he gives you a code to place on the check. This is a reference number the truck stop (or wherever you’re getting the cash advance) uses to verify that the check is good.

The company that issues Comchecks and Comcard.

Commentary Driving
Many truck driver training programs utilize the commentary driving concept. This is an important tool to help the student understand both how a truck driver thinks and sees things as he drives down the road, and how the student will have to modify his own thinking in order to be a safe and effective truck driver. While training, the trainer first drives down the road while verbalizing everything he is thinking, seeing, and doing. This is done to give a clear example of what is required of the driver in the day-to-day operations of a big truck. Then the student takes a turn driving and openly verbalizes what he’s thinking about and exactly what he’s seeing so that the trainer and other students can hear and evaluate his observations, while comparing the two different approaches.

Commercial Motor Vehicle Federal Definition 49 CFR 390.5
Means any self-propelled or towed motor vehicle used on a highway in interstate commerce to transport passengers or property when the vehicle–

Commercial vehicle
as defined in CFR 390.5 and Section 72-9-102.

Commercial Vehicle Utah Definition UCA 72-9-102
Means a motor vehicle, vehicle, trailer, or semi trailer used or maintained for business, compensation, or profit to transport passengers or property on a highway if the commercial vehicle:

An Item that is traded in commerce. The term usually implies an undifferentiated product competing primarily on price and availability.

Common Authority
Certificate from the ICC that allows the holder to haul regulated commodities in a for-hire trucking operation.

Common Carrier
Any carrier engaged in the interstate transportation of persons/property on a regular schedule at published rates, whose services are for hire to the general public.

Common Carriers’ Insurance
Insurance that covers transportation company’s liability for loss of, or damage to, cargo or property being transported by them.

The receiver of a freight shipment, usually the buyer.

An agreement between a consignee and a consignor in which the goods are taken responsibility for and transported by a third party, the carrier. May also simply refer to the consigned goods (i.e., the cargo).[6]

The sender of a freight shipment, usually the seller.

Consumer commodities
are materials that are packaged and distributed in a form intended for, or suitable for sale through retail sales. In order to determine if a particular hazardous material may qualify as a consumer commodity, refer to the section number in Part 173 identified in column 8 of the 172.101 Table for that material.

A “box”‘ typically ten to forty feet long, which is used primarily for ocean freight shipment. For travel to and from ports, containers are loaded onto truck chassis’ or on railroad flatcars.

Container Chassis
A type of trailer specifically designed to carry a shipping container.

Container on Flatcar (COFC)
Containers resting on railway flatcars without a chassis underneath.

A shipment method in which commodities are placed in containers, and after initial loading, the commodities per se are not re-handled in shipment until they are unloaded at destination.

Containerized Cargo
Cargo that is transported in containers that can be transferred easily from one transportation mode to another.

Contract Carrier
A carrier that does not serve the general public, but provides transportation for hire for one or a limited number of shippers under a specific contract.

Contract Carrier
Carrier engaged in interstate transportation of persons/property by motor vehicle on a for-hire basis, but under continuing contract with one or a limited number of customers to meet specific needs.

A style of tractor in which the cab sits behind the engine compartment, instead of over it (as in the case of the Cabover)

Converter Dolly
The assembly which connects trailers together, as in a set of double or triple trailers. This assembly is equipped with the fifth wheel for coupling.

Credit Life Insurance
A policy covering a buyer’s life, until the truck is paid off, thus guarantees payment

means the Compliance, Safety, Accountability program administered by the Federal Motor Carrier safety Administration, where they work together with state partners and industry to further reduce commercial motor vehicle crashes, fatalities, and injuries on our nation’s highways.

Cubic volume of space being used or available for shipping or storage.

This is the capacity, measured in cubic feet, of the interior volume of a trailer.

Commercial Vehicle Information System and Network

Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance

Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance Defense Highway

United States Department of Transportation

DAC Services
A pre-employment screening service many trucking companies use to help them select drivers.

Day Cab
A tractor which has no sleeper berth. Often for local work where the driver gets home every night.

means one-half hour before sunrise and one-half hour after sunset.

The return of an empty transportation container back to a transportation facility. Commonly-used description of an empty backhaul.

Operating a truck with no load.

The carrier charges and fees applied when rail freight cars and ships are retained beyond a specific loading or unloading time.

Means the Utah Department of Transportation.

A decrease in value (usually for tax purposes)

Detention (Demurrage)
Detention of a vehicle beyond the time normally allowed for loading, unloading, etc.

Detention Fee
The carrier charges and fees applied when rail freight cars, ship and carriers are retained beyond a specified loading or unloading time.

Direct to store
Process of shipping direct from a manufacturer’s plant or distribution center to the customer’s retail store, thus bypassing the customer’s distribution center.

Disability Insurance
Insurance policy that covers income if a truck driver is unable to work for a few weeks or more.

Discretionary Income
Amount of money left after expenses.

An individual tasked to assign available transportation loads to available carriers.

Distribution Center (DC)
The warehouse facility which holds inventory from manufacturing pending distribution to the appropriate stores.

Divisible Load
A load that can reasonably be dismantled or disassembled and does not meet the definition of non-divisible as defined in this section.

Means the Motor Carrier Division.

A space used or receiving merchandise at a freight terminal.

Dock Lock
A safety device that hooks to your trailer’s bumper when you’re backed to a loading dock. This device is controlled from inside the facility, and it prevents the trailer from being able to move away from the dock, especially considering the safety of the forklift driver and anyone else inside the trailer. See the section on ” picking up the load”.

Railcar movement of containers stacked two high.

A tractor with two semi trailers connected in tandem by a converter dolly.

Connection between two vehicles, measured from box to box and/or frame-to-frame, or actual drawbar, one of which is towing or drawing the other on a highway.

Transporting of rail or ocean freight by truck to an intermediate or final destination; typically a charge for pickup/delivery of goods moving short distances (e.g., from marine terminal to warehouse).

Driving time
is all time spent at the driving controls of a commercial motor vehicle in operation.

Dromedary Unit
A truck-tractor capable of carrying a load independent of a trailer. A dromedary is a box, deck, or plate mounted behind the cab and forward of the fifth wheel on the frame of the power unit.

Dromedary unit
is a truck-tractor capable of carrying a load independent of a trailer. Units manufactured prior to December 1, 1982 are exempt as a truck-trailer.

A situation in which an equipment operator deposits a trailer or boxcar at a facility at which it is to be loaded or unloaded.

Drop and Hook
Taking a loaded trailer to a shipper/receiver, dropping the trailer (unhooking the trailer, and leaving it there at the customer’s facility), and then hooking up to, and leaving with, another loaded trailer. Most drivers prefer this because there’s no waiting, sometimes for hours, for your trailer to get unloaded or loaded.

Drop Pay
Extra pay for a delivery, usually an extra stop.

Dry Freight
Freight that’s not refrigerated.

All loose materials used to support and protect cargo.

Dunnage Bags
An inflatable bag intended to fill otherwise empty space between articles of cargo, or between article of cargo and the wall of the vehicle.

Durable Goods
Generally, any goods whose continuous serviceability is likely to exceed three years.

Empty Call
The call you make to your dispatcher to inform him that you’re unloaded/empty, and need a new load assignment.

Money held in trust by a third person with directions to use it for a specific purpose.

Exclusive Devices
All commercial vehicle length and width devices and appurtenances exempt from measurement in 23 CFR 658 of the Federal Register. (Final Rule effective April 29, 2002) UCA 72-7-402.

Exempt Carrier
A for-hire carrier that is free from economic regulation. Trucks hauling certain commodities are exempt from Interstate Commerce Commission economic regulation. By far the largest portion of exempt carrier transports agricultural commodities or seafood.

Exempt Commodity
Commodities that are moved interstate and intrastate by truck and not subject to regulation (i.e., any fresh fruit or vegetables except bananas)

Fifth Wheel
The coupling device attached to a tractor or dolly which supports the front of the semitrailer and locks it to the tractor or dolly. The center of the fifth wheel hooks to the trailer’s kingpin, at which point the trailer and tractor or dolly pivots.

A common term for what a driver does when he has to unload the trailer by himself.

Fixed axle
means an axle that is not steerable, self steering or retractable.

Fixed Costs
Costs that have a long life, such as truck payment, mortgage, insurance, etc.

Fixed Tandem
The assembly of two axles and suspension that is attached to the chassis in one place and cannot be moved back and forth.

is a person that is trained to direct traffic using signs or flags to aid the over-dimensional load or vehicles in the safe movement along the highway as designated on the over-dimensional load permit.

A trailer without sides used for hauling machinery or other bulky items.

Floating the Gears
When you shift gears without using the clutch.

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

FMCSRs (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations)
Contains the rules governing operations of trucks and buses in interstate commerce. Utah has adopted the FMCSR for intrastate transportation.

Free on Board

For-hire Carrier
Carrier that provides transportation service to the public on a fee basis.

For-Hire Motor Carrier
means a person engaged in the transportation of goods or passengers for compensation.

Forced Dispatch
Being forced to take a load whether the driver wants to or not.

Four P’s
Set of marketing tools to direct the business offering to the customer. The four P’s are product, price, place and promotion.

Free Trade Zone (FTZ)
An area or zone set aside at or near a port or airport, under the control of the U.S. Customs Service, for holding goods duty-free pending customs clearance.

Any commodity being transported.

Freight All Kinds (FAK)
Goods classified FAK are usually charged higher rates than those marked with a specific classification and are frequently in a container that includes various classes of cargo.

Freight Bill
Shipping document describing the freight, classification, rates charged, total amount Definitions for transportation, and any other charges made under a tariff.

Freight Charge
Payment due for the transportation of the freight

Freight Forwarder
A person whose business is to act as an agent on behalf of a shipper. A freight forwarder frequently consolidates shipments from several shippers and coordinates booking reservations.

Freight Lane
The route, often an Interstate or major highway, on which a great amount of freight flows back and forth. If you work for a company which uses regular freight lanes, it will be beneficial to your home time if you live on or near one of these freight lanes.

Frequent Fueler
Many of the major truck stops have frequent fueler programs or cards which drivers can sign up for. These programs give you credit or cash back for each gallon of fuel you purchase.

Fuel taxes
Taxes paid to each state a vehicle runs in based on miles driven in that state.

Fuel-Taxed Waterway System
Eleven thousand miles of the U.S. waterway system designated by the Water Resources Development Act of 1986. Commercial users of this system pay a per gallon fuel tax which is deposited in the Inland Waterways Trust Fund and used to fund inland navigation projects each year.

Full trailer
a vehicle without motive power designed for carrying property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and constructed so that no part of its weight rests upon the towing vehicle.

Government Bill of Lading.

GAWR (Gross Axle Weight Rating)
The maximum weight an axle is rated to carry by the manufacturer. Includes both the weight of the axle, and the portion of a vehicle’s weight carried by the axle.

Gross Combination Weight

GCW (Gross Combination Weight)
The total weight of a loaded combination vehicle, such as a tractor-trailer.

Georgia Overdrive
Taking the truck out of gear when you’re going down a hill, which enables the truck to go extremely fast. Not only not recommended, but certainly grounds for immediate termination.

Glider Kit
Truck that has been rebuilt, particularly component wise.

A device which limits the maximum speed of a vehicle. Used by a great number of trucking companies who want to save on fuel expenses, and limit accidents.

A significant change of elevation; either an upgrade, or downgrade, the steepness of which is determined as a percentage. For example, a road with a 5% downgrade decreases 5 feet for every 100 feet of travel.

A vehicle’s ability to climb a certain percentage of grade at a given speed. For example, a truck with a gradeability of 6% at 60 mph can maintain 60 mph on a 6% grade.

Government Records Access Management Act

Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR)
Means the value specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of a combination (articulated) motor vehicle. In the absence of a value specified by the manufacturer, GCWR will be determined by adding the GVWR of the power unit and the total weight of the towed unit and any load thereon.

Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW)
The combined total weight of a vehicle and its freight.

Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR)
Means the value specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of a single motor vehicle.

Hazardous Material
A substance or material which the Department of Transportation has determined to be capable of posing a risk to health, safety, and property when stored or transported in commerce.

Hazardous Materials
Substance or material capable of posing unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported in commerce, as determined by the U.S. Secretary of Transportation.

Hazardous materials, as classified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Any transportation of hazardous materials is regulated by the United States Department of Transportation. To haul hazardous materials, a driver needs a hazmat endorsement on his CDL, plus special training.

Headache Rack
A metal barrier station behind the tractors cab, to prevent loads from coming forward and crushing the tractor (and anyone inside). Most common on tractors pulling flatbed trailers.

Health Insurance
Medical and Hospitalization insurance.

High-risk motor carrier
is a carrier that is:

Any public road, street, alley, lane, court, place, viaduct, tunnel, culvert, bridge, or structure laid out or erected for public use, or dedicated or abandoned to the public, or made public in an action for the partition of real property, including the entire area within the right-of-way. UCA 72-1-102(7)

Hazardous Materials Regulations

Hours of Service
Ruling that stipulates the amount of time a driver is allotted to work.

A common connection point for devices in a network. Referenced for a transportation network as in “hub and spoke” which is common in the airline and trucking industry.

When the tires lose contact with the road due to excess water.

Interstate Commerce Commission

International Fuel Tax Agreement

Implement of Husbandry
Every vehicle designed or adapted or used exclusively for an agricultural operation and only incidentally operated or moved upon the highways.

In-bond Shipment
A shipment status in which goods are permitted to enter a country and temporarily stored for transport to a final destination where the duty will be paid.

Inbound Logistics
The movement of materials from shippers and vendors into production processes or storage facilities.

means transportation that occurs occasionally or by chance, but does not exceed a distance of 20 miles.

Independent Contractors
Independent contractors are owner operators who lease themselves and their vehicles to trucking companies regulated by the ICC.

Individual Variable Costs
Costs that are variable and peculiar to a specific trucking operation such as accounting fees, helper wages, personal road expenses, etc.

Interaxle Differential
On tractors with tandem rear axles, the inter axle differential allows each axle to turn independently.

Interline Freight
Freight moving from point of origin to destination over the lines of two or more transportation lines.

Transportation movement involving more than one mode, example, rail motor, motor air, or rail water

Intermodal terminal
A location where links between different transportation modes and networks connect. Using more than one mode of transportation in moving persons and goods. For example, a shipment moved over 1000 miles could travel by truck for one portion of the trip, and then transfer to rail at a designated terminal.

Between states

Interstate Commerce
Means trade, traffic, or transportation in the United States:

Interstate System
Any highway designated as an interstate or freeway. For the purpose of this guide I-15, I-215, I-80, I-70, US 89 between I-84 and I-15 and SR 201 between I-15 and I-80 will be considered interstate.

Within a state

Intrastate Commerce
Means any trade, traffic, or transportation in any state, which is not described in the term “interstate commerce.”

The number of units and/or value of the stock of good a company holds.

International Registration Plan

Inspection Selection System

Placing the tractor/trailer at a very sharp angle resulting from lock-up of tractor drive axle(s).

Jackrabbit Start
Releasing the clutch too quickly, which causes the vehicle to jerk forward.

Jake Brake
An engine retarder which helps to slow vehicles, especially on down grades.

Johnson Bar
The trailer hand valve, commonly used to test the brakes after coupling the tractor and trailer. Also known as the trolley valve.

Just-in-Time (JIT)
Cargo or components that must be at a destination at the exact time needed. The container or vehicle is the movable warehouse.

A device which is used to connect the “upper-half” to the “lower-half” of the 5th wheel plate in such a manner as to permit relative movement in a horizontal plane between the towed and towing vehicles.

Kingpin Lock
A locking device which is placed around/over the kingpin, which prevents a fifth wheel from connecting to it, and taking the trailer. Highly recommended if you plan on dropping the trailer in an unsecured location, which includes truck stops.

means carrying a load.

The freight in a truck

Landing Gear
Retracting legs which support the trailer when it’s not connected to a tractor.

Layover Time
The time a driver spends not working and away from his home terminal before he is sent to another destination.

Any off-duty time while away from home.

LCV (Long Combination Vehicle)
Any combination of a truck tractor and two or more trailers or semi-trailers which operate on the Interstate System at a gross vehicle weight (GVW) greater than 80,000 pounds.

The total time that elapses between an order’s placement and it receipt. It includes the time required for order transmittal, order processing, order preparation, and transit.

Lease purchase
Method of purchasing a rig (usually from a regulated carrier), whereby some of the rent paid to the carrier for the privilege of using the cab is applied to the principal owed by the owner operator.

Less-Than-Container Load/Less-Than-Truckload (LCL/LTL)
A container or trailer loaded with cargo from more than one shipper; loads that do not by themselves meet the container load or truckload requirements.

Level of Service (LOS)
A qualitative assessment of a road’s operating conditions. For local government comprehensive planning purposes, level of service means an indicator of the extent or degree of service provided by, or proposed to be provided by, a facility based on and related to the operational characteristics of the facility. Level of service indicates the capacity per unit of demand for each public facility.

Future items that may become obligations under certain conditions. The obligations arise from past transactions or events.

Liability Insurance
Insurance that covers any third party injuries or damages.

Lift Axle
An extra, unpowered axle which is needed only when the vehicle is loaded, and which allows it to meet Federal and state vehicle weight standards. The axle can be raised or lowered by an air spring suspension system.

Lift-on/Lift-off (lo/lo) Cargo
Containerized cargo that must be lifted on and off vessels and other vehicles using handling equipment.

Line Haul
The movement of freight over the road/rail from origin terminal to destination terminal, usually over long distances.

Moving freight from one point to another.

Liquid Bulk Cargo
A type of bulk cargo that consists of liquid items, such as petroleum, water, or liquid natural gas.

Live Load
As situation in which the equipment operation stays with the trailer or boxcar while being loaded or unloaded.

Load Locks
Long metal bars which retract and expand to fit in place from one side wall of the trailer to the other, thereby holding back, and securing the load (cargo).

Loaded Call
The call you make to your dispatcher from the shipper once your trailer is loaded, and the bills are signed.

Loaded Mile
Distance traveled with paid freight in a trailer.

A channel where the water rises and falls to allow boats to travel a dammed river.

A daily record of the hours an interstate driver spends driving, off duty, sleeping in the berth, or on duty not driving.

(Record of duty status) Written record completed by a commercial vehicle driver in a graph-grid format. Entries indicate daily number of hours worked, driven, off-duty, and vehicle(s) driven.

All activities involved in the management of product movement; delivering the right product from the right origin to the right destination, with the right quality and quantity, at the right schedule and price.

Longer Combination Vehicle (LCV)
A combination of truck, truck tractor, semi-trailer and trailer(s), which exceeds legal dimensions/ weight and operates on highways by permit for transporting divisible loads.

Longer Combination Vehicle (LCV) Authority
An authorization given to a specific company to exceed standard permitted length allowances for vehicle configuration on pre-approved routes.

Low Boy
An open flatbed trailer, where the main body of the trailer is very low to the ground so that it can haul oversize or wide loads; often construction equipment, or other extremely bulky or heavy loads.

Lower half
Lower half of a “saddle mount” means that part of the device, which is securely attached to the towing vehicle and maintains a fixed position relative thereto but does not include the “king-pin;”

Less Than Truckload

Individuals that assist a motor carrier owner operator in the unloading of property; quite commonly used in the food industry.

A document describing a shipment or the contents of a vehicle

Manufactured Home
A transportable factory built housing unit constructed on or after June 15, 1976, in one or more sections, and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and electrical systems.

Manufactured Mobile Home
means a transportable factory built housing unit built prior to June 15, 1976, in accordance with a state mobile home code, which existed prior to the Federal Manufactured Housing and Safety Standards Act.

Materials of Trade Transportation
(see 49 CFR 171.8) by highway may be accepted from many of the requirements of the HM regulations when transported in accordance with the procedures contained in 49 CFR 173.6.

Motor Carrier Division

MCS 90
Endorsement for motor carrier policies of insurance for public liability.

Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program

Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Program

Medical Certificate
Certificate showing that driver has passed USDOT

Medical Waiver
Waiver from medical requirements for drivers who cannot meet minimum driver qualification standards under 49 CFR Part 391.

Any shipment which is under 100 pounds.

Motor Carrier
A person engaged in or transacting the business of transporting passengers, freight, merchandise, or other property by a commercial vehicle on a highway within this state and includes a tow truck business.

means two or more daily or a minimum of 10 weekly trips in the proximity of a port-of-entry

Means Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices

Motor Vehicle Record

MVR Report
A driver’s motor vehicle record, which shows all violations, accidents, etc.

Neo-bulk Cargo
Shipments consisting entirely of units of a single commodity, such as cars, lumber, or scrap metal.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

No Touch
A situation in which the driver doesn’t have to load or unload (no touching, or fingerprinting, the load) the cargo.

A fixed point in a firm’s logistics system where goods come to rest; includes plants, warehouses, supply sources, and markets.

Any load or vehicle exceeding applicable length: width, or height or weight limits which, if separated into smaller loads or vehicles would: (a) Compromise the intended use of the load and/or vehicle, (b) Destroy the value of the load or vehicle, or (c) Require more than eight work hours to dismantle using appropriate equipment.

The National Transportation Safety Board

O,S,& D Department
The Department of your company which handles overage, shortage, and damaged cargo. See the section on OS & D in “at the shipper”.

Off duty
means the driver has been relieved of all responsibilities and is not ready for work.

Omnitracs, formerly Qualcomm
A satellite tracking device and communication tool that can also be used to monitor speed, braking, idling, and other barometers

On duty time
is all time a driver spends performing work, or being ready to work, until being relieved by the carrier of all responsibility. “On duty” time also includes any compensated work performed by the driver for a non-motor carrier entity. On duty time does not include time spent resting in or on a parked vehicle; (also applies to passenger-carrying drivers); any time spent resting in a sleeper berth; or up to 2 hours riding in the passenger seat of a property-carrying vehicle moving on the highway immediately before or after 8 consecutive hours in sleeper-berth.

On-dock Rail
Direct shipside rail service. Includes the ability to load and unload containers/break bulk directly from railcar to vessel.

Operating Expenses
Expenses needed to move freight, such as, cost of fuel, equipment, labor, permits, etc.

Operating Ratio
A measure of operation efficiency defined as: (Operating Expenses/Operation Revenues) x 100.

Opti- Idle
Equipment which starts and shuts down the truck to keep the truck a certain temperature inside, while reducing idling time.

Orientation Time
Training time required to learn specific rules under which a carrier operates.

ORM-D Materials
are materials such as a consumer commodity, which although is subject to the regulations presents a limited hazard during transportation due to its form, quantity, and packaging. Each ORM-D material and category of ORM-D material is listed in the 49 CFR 172.101 Table and 173.144.

Over, short and damaged. Report is issued at warehouse when goods are damaged; claim is usually filed with the carrier.

Over the road drivers.

Out of Route
Motor carriers usually use set mileage amounts for distances between cities. If a driver goes over this amount, any miles over the set amount are considered “out of route” miles.

Condition where a motor vehicle, because of mechanical condition or loading, is considered imminently hazardous and likely to cause an accident or breakdown; or where a driver violation renders a commercial vehicle operator unqualified to drive.

Outbound Logistics
The process related to the movement and storage of products from the end of the production line to the end user.

Extra freight which shouldn’t have been shipped.

Trucking operation in which the owner of the truck is also the driver.

Pickup and delivery operations.

The wooden base onto which a product is loaded. It has slats on the sides which enable a forklift to move products easily.

Total weight of the commodity carried on a truck including packaging, banding, etc.

Peddle Run
A load which has multiple, and often frequent deliveries.

Permanent Lease
A lease for at least 30 days where an owner operator leases himself and his equipment to a regulated carrier.

Permission granted to carriers by states to transport freight exceeding legal weight and size limits.

A rail/truck service. A shipper loads a highway trailer, and a carrier drives it to a rail terminal and loads it on a flatcar; the railroad moves the trailer-on-flatcar combination to the destination terminal, where the carrier offloads the trailer and delivers it to the consignee.

The term used for the situation in which loaded highway trailers are loaded onto railcars, and taken to railheads. From there, local trucks take the trailers the rest of the way to their destination.

The electrical line supplying electric power from the tractor to the trailer, coiled like a pig’s tail.

Pintle Hook
A coupling device used in double and triple trailer, and truck-trailer combinations.

Personal Injury Protection

A label that identifies a hazardous material shipment and the hazards present.

Diamond-shaped sign required on a four sides of motor vehicle hauling hazardous materials that shows hazard classification of material transported.

Preventive maintenance inspection

Point of Sale (POS)
The time and place at which a sale occurs, such as a cash register in a retail operation, or the order confirmation screen in an online session. Supply chain partners are interested in capturing data at the POS because it is a true record of the sale rather than being derived from other information such as inventory movement.

Pole Trailer
Every vehicle without motive power designed to be drawn by another vehicle and attached to the towing vehicle by means of a reach, or pole, or by being boomed or otherwise secured to the towing vehicle, and is ordinarily used for transporting long or irregular shaped loads such as poles, pipes, or structural members generally capable of sustaining themselves as beams between the supporting connections.

Pool/Drop Trailers
Trailer that are staged at a facilities for preloading purposes.

Port Authority
State or local government that owns, operates, or otherwise provides wharf, dock, and other terminal investments at ports.

Port-of-entry by-pass permit
allows a motor carrier a temporary permit that would allow bypass of a designated port of entry.

Power Divider
See “Interaxle Differential”.

Pre Trip Inspection
A walk around inspection of a truck that every driver is required to perform prior to every trip in a commercial vehicle. This involves following a complete checklist related to the particular type of vehicle being inspected. The pre-trip inspection is considered by experts to be one of the most neglected, potentially effective means of improving truck safety.

A freight term, which indicates that charges are to be paid by the shipper. Prepaid shipping charges may be added to the customer invoice, or the cost may be bundled into the pricing of the product.

Actual amount of money borrowed

Performance & Registration Information Systems Management

Private Carrier
A carrier that provides transportation service to the firm that owns or leases the vehicles and does not charge a fee.

Private Motor Carrier
A person who provides transportation of property or passengers, by commercial motor vehicle, and is not a for hire motor carrier.

Private Warehouse
A company owned warehouse.

Pro Rate
To distribute proportionately.

Proof of Delivery
Information supplied by the carrier containing the name of the person who signed for the shipment, the time and date of delivery, and other shipment delivery related information.

PTO (Power Takeoff)
A device used in tractors which transmits tractor engine power to auxiliary equipment.

Public Scales
The scales the general public is able to use to weigh their vehicles.

Pull Logistics System
Just in time logistics system driven by customer demand and enabled by telecommunications and information systems rather than by manufacturing process and inventory stockpiling.

Pup Trailer
A short semi-trailer, usually between 26 and 32 feet long, and having only a single axle at the rear.

Purchase Order (PO)
The purchaser’s authorization used to formalize a purchase transaction with a supplier. The physical form or electronic transaction a buyer uses when placing an order for merchandise.

Push Logistics System
Inventory-based logistics system characterized by regularly scheduled flows of products and high inventory levels.

Quad Axle Group
A group of four consecutive fixed axles.

Qualcomm (now Omnitracs)
A satellite tracking device and communication tool that can also be used to monitor speed, braking, idling, and other barometers of a driver’s efficiency.

Radio Frequency (RFID)
A form of wireless communication that lets users relay information via electronic energy waves from a terminal to a base station, which is linked in turn to a host computer. The terminals can be placed at a fixed station, mounted on a forklift truck, or carried in the worker’s hand. The base station contains a transmitter and receiver for communication with the terminals. When combined with a bar-code system for identifying inventory items, a radio-frequency system can relay data instantly, thus updating inventory records in so-called “real time”.

Rail Siding
A very short branch off a main railway line with only one point leading onto it. Sidings are used to allow faster trains to pass slower ones or to conduct maintenance.

The charge for transporting freight

The customer who accepts your delivery/shipment; Also known as the consignee.

The function encompassing the physical receipt of material, the inspection of the shipment for conformance with the purchase order (quantity and damage), the identification and delivery to destination, and the preparation of receiving reports.

Record of duty status
is the tracking of work hours by means of a graph, grid, log or an automatic on-board recording device.

Recourse Agreement
An agreement between buyer and seller whereby if a buyer defaults on payments and the truck is repossessed, the selling dealer must buy the truck from the lender for the unpaid balance. The dealer can sue the former owner for the balance if it is more than the truck is worth.

Recreational Vehicle
Vehicles that are driven solely as family or personal conveyances for noncommercial purposes.

A refrigerated trailer, where the temperature is controlled by a refrigeration unit (the reefer unit). A “reefer” can either refer to the reefer unit or the entire reefer trailer.

Reefer Trailer
A refrigerated trailer that is commonly used for perishable goods.

Reefer truck
a “reefer” is a refrigerated trailer that gets attached to a semi-truck in order to transport perishables and other temperature-sensitive goods.

Regional Railroad
Railroad defined as line-haul railroad operating at least 350 miles of track and/or earns revenue between $40 million and $266.7 million.

Regulated commodities
Commodities that are transported under governmental regulation.

Regulated Common carrier
Carriers that transport general commodities that are regulated by the ICC.

Relay Driving
In LTL shipments, a driver only takes a load a portion of the way, usually for the duration of one shift (eight to 10 hours). The driver then turns the truck over to another driver to continue the trip.

Refers to the degree of certainty and predictability in travel times on the transportation system. Reliable transportation systems offer some assurance of attaining a given destination within a reasonable range of an expected time. An unreliable transportation system is subject to unexpected delays, increasing costs for system users.

The device used to assist brakes in order to slow a vehicle. There are many different types of retarders; including engine retarders, transmission-mounted hydraulic retarders, and axle mounted electromagnetic retarders. An engine retarder commonly called a ‘Jake Brake’ is used in most trucks today.

Retractable Axle
An axle which can be mechanically raised and lowered by the driver of the vehicle, but which may not have its weight- bearing capacity mechanically regulated.

Return to Vendor (RTV)
Material that has been rejected by the customer or buyer’s inspection department and is awaiting shipment back to supplier for repair or replacement.

Reverse Logistics
A specialized segment of logistics focusing on the movement and management of products and resources after the sale and after delivery to the customer. Includes product returns and repair for credit.

Rider Policy
An insurance policy provision that provides coverage to a passenger in a commercial vehicle.

Rider Policy
The company’s policy regarding allowing passengers in the truck with the driver.

Road Use Taxes
Annual federal tax applied to each vehicle.

Rocky Mountain doubles
a tractor and two trailers, consisting of a long and a short trailer.

Roll-on/Roll-off (ro/ro) Cargo
Wheeled cargo, such as automobiles, or cargo carried on chassis that can be rolled on or off vehicles without using cargo handling equipment.

Runaway Truck Ramp
An emergency escape ramp used on steep downgrades for trucks which have lost braking power.

Ryan Recorder
A monitoring and recording device which is placed inside of a temperature controlled trailer.

A device, designed and constructed as to be readily demountable, used in driveaway-towaway operations to perform the functions of a conventional fifth wheel:

Safety and Fitness Electronic Records

Networked PC Data Collection and Delivery System

Scale (Weigh) Station
A place where trucks are weighed to ensure that GVW and axle weights are below permissible levels.

Safety Evaluation Area

A plastic or metal band (once it’s broken, it cannot be reconnected) placed on the trailer door latch. An intact seal ensures that the trailer doors have not been opened, and the cargo is untouched.

Repetitive pattern of demand from year to year (or other repeating time interval) with some periods considerably higher than others. Seasonality explains the fluctuation in demand for various recreational products, which are used during different seasons.

Secondary Highway
All other routes not designated as interstate or freeway. Two-lane, two-way highways are synonymous with secondary highways.

Semi Trailer
Every vehicle without motive power designed for carrying persons or property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and constructed so that some part of its weight and its load rest or is carried by another vehicle.

A trailer supported at the rear by its own axles and wheels, and at the front by fifth wheel from a tractor or dolly.

Service Plaza
A rest area found on turnpikes or toll roads. These usually have truck parking, restrooms, vending machines, telephones, and often fast food restaurants.

A net amount paid for hauling a load.

A local delivery, or trailer movement.

Party that tenders goods for transportation.

Shipping Manifest
A document that lists the pieces in a shipment.

Shipping Paper
USDOT’s shipping order, bill of lading, or other document used in connection with the movement of freight.

Shoring Bar
A device placed transversely between the walls of a vehicle and cargo to prevent cargo from tipping and shifting.

Short Line Railroad
Freight railroads which are not Class I or Regional Railroads, that operate less than 350 miles of track and earn less than $40 million.

Short-sea Shipping
Also known as coastal or coastwise shipping, describes marine shipping operations between ports along a single coast or involving a short sea crossing.

A sleeping compartment situated behind the tractor’s cab, behind the driver’s seat, or an integral part the cab.

Sleeper Team
Two drivers who operated a truck equipped with a sleeper berth; while one driver sleeps in the berth to accumulate mandatory off-duty time, the other driver operates the vehicle.

Sliding Fifth Wheel
A fifth wheel with a sliding mechanism which allows it to be adjusted in order to distribute the weight of the axles, varying the overall vehicle length and weight per axle.

Sliding Tandem
A mechanism that allows a tandem axle suspension to be moved back and forth at the rear of a semi-trailer in order to distribute the weight between axles, and adjust the length between kingpin and tandems.

When a driver is not assigned to a regular tractor, but moves in and out of tractors as they become available.

Space Cushion
The area between the vehicle and other vehicles on the road. It is important to keep an adequate space cushion to avoid accidents, etc.

Special Event
Means the movement of an over-dimensional load/vehicle.

Special hazards
means extreme weather conditions and/or highway construction or maintenance projects

Special Mobile Equipment
or an SME means a vehicle or vehicles exempt from registration that is not designed or used primarily for the transportation of persons or property; is not designed to operate in traffic; and is only incidentally operated or moved over the highways.

Special Truck Equipment
or an STE means a vehicle by nature of design that cannot meet the non-divisible weight allowances such as cement pump trucks, well boring trucks, or cranes with a lift capacity of five or more tons.

Split Axle
In split-axle designs, the wheel on each side is attached to a separate shaft. Modern passenger cars have split drive axles. In some designs, this allows independent suspension of the left and right wheels, and therefore a smoother ride. Even when the suspension is not independent, split axles permit the use of a differential, allowing the left and right drive wheels to be driven at different speeds as the automobile turns, improving traction and extending tire life.

A yard driver who moves and parks trailers in a terminal yard (In some places, they’re known as a ‘yard dog’ or ‘yard jockey’). The vehicles used to move the trailers are designed so that the driver just walks behind the driver’s seat to hook up the airlines, and includes a hydraulic lift to lift up the trailer without having to crank up the landing gear, so that the trailers can be moved quickly.

Spread Axle
is two single axles that exceed 96 inches apart.

Stinger Steered
A semi-trailer combination wherein the fifth wheel is located on a drop frame behind and below the rearmost axle of the power unit.

Stock Keeping Unit (SKU)
A category of unit with unique combination of form, fit and function.

Stock Outs
Merchandise that is requested by a customer but is temporarily unavailable. Also referred to as (OOS).

Stop Off Charge
Charge associated with a load that has more than one drop off point. Typically, the first stop of a multistop load is free, and then the charge applies to the subsequent stops.

Strategic Highway Network (STRAHNET)
A network of highways which are important to the United States’ strategic defense policy and which provide defense access, continuity, and emergency capabilities for defense purposes.

Strategic Rail Corridor Network (STRACNET)
An interconnected and continuous rail line network consisting of over 38,000 miles of track serving over 170 defense installations.

Super Load
A vehicle and/or load in excess of 17 feet in width on secondary highways, 20 feet in width on Interstate systems, 17 feet 6 inches in height or in excess of 125,000 pounds gross vehicle weight.

Supply Chain
Starting with unprocessed raw materials and ending with final customer using the finished goods.

A charge above the usual or customary charge.

An additional or extra tax.

Switching and Terminal Railroad
Railroad that provides pick-up and delivery services to line-haul carriers.

An assembly of two axles, either of which may be powered.

Tandem Axle
Two or more axles spaced not less than 40 inches nor more than 96 inches apart and having at least one common point of weight suspension.

A published rate for hauling goods

Team Driving
Two drivers who alternate between driving and non-driving time (sleeping, resting, etc) in order to expedite the shipment and maximize the overall production of the truck.

Twenty-foot equivalent unit, a standard size intermodal container

Third-party Logistics (3PL) Provider
A specialist in logistics who may provide a variety of transportation, warehousing, and logistics-related services to buyers or sellers. These tasks were previously performed in-house by the customer.

Total amount of freight imported or exported through a seaport measured in tons or TEUs.

Time record
is a time card or other record showing the time the driver reports for duty each day, total hours the driver is on duty each day, time the driver is released from duty each day, and total time for preceding days if the driver is used for first time or intermittently.

TL (Truckload)

TL Carrier
A trucking company which usually dedicates trailers to a single shippers cargo, as opposed to an LTL carrier, which often transports the combined cargo of several different shippers.

A measure of output for freight transportation; reflects weight of shipment and the distance it is hauled; a multiplication of tons hauled by the distance traveled.

A truck designed primarily to pull a semi-trailer by the use of the fifth wheel which is mounted over its drive axle/s. May be called a truck/highway tractor to differentiate it from a farm tractor.

Trailer (Full)
Vehicle without motive power designed for carrying property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and constructed so that no part of its weight rest upon the towing vehicle.

Trailer on Flatcar (TOFC)
Transport of trailers with their loads on specially designed rail cars.

Transit time
The total time that elapses between a shipment’s delivery and pickup.

Transferring bulk shipments from the vehicle/container of one mode to that of another at a terminal interchange point.

Transportation Insurance
This insurance covers loss to shippers because of an accident to goods in transit.

Any combination of three axles grouped together.

Tridem Axle
Any three consecutive axles whose extreme centers are not more than 144 inches apart, and are individually attached to or articulated from, or both, a common attachment to the vehicle including a connecting mechanism designed to equalize the load between axles.

Trip Lease
A one trip only lease.

Trip Lease Operators
Owner operators who haul for a different carrier or broker each trip.

Trip Leasing
The term used for the practice of contacting other trucking companies in an area where a driver needs a load, and selecting from available ‘overbooked’ loads.

Trip Record
A record of each trip which includes expenses and revenue.

Trip Recorder
On- Board Computer – Cab mounted device which records data such as speed, engine rpm, idle time and any other information that may be useful to trucking management.

Triple trailer
means a tractor and three trailers of approximately equal length.

means any self-propelled motor vehicle, except a truck tractor, designed or used for the transportation of property, laden or unladen.

Truck Tractor
A motor vehicle designed and used primarily for drawing other vehicles and not constructed to carry a load other than a part of the weight of the vehicle and load that is drawn.

Truckload (TL)
Quantity of freight required to fill a truck, or at a minimum, the amount required to qualify for a truckload rate.

Trunnion Axle
An axle configuration with two individual axles mounted in the same transverse plane, with four tires on each axle.

Trunnion Axle Group
Two or more consecutive trunnion axles that are attached to the vehicle by a weight equalizing suspension system and whose consecutive centers are more than 40 inches, but not more than 96 inches apart.

Turnpike Doubles
means a tractor and two trailers of equal length.

Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit (TEU)
The 8-foot by 8-foot by 20-foot intermodal container is used as a basic measure in many statistics and is the standard measure used for containerized cargo.

U.S. DOT Number
Vehicle Registration Number. U.S Dot numbers are supplied without charge, and are required for all vehicles exceeding 10,000 lbs. GVW or GCW.

Unified Carrier Registration

Utah Department of Transportation

means a vehicle is not carrying a load

Unit Train
A train of a specified number of railcars handling a single commodity type which remain as a unit for a designated destination or until a change in routing is made.

Upper-half of a “saddlemount” means that part of the device which is securely attached to the towed vehicle and maintains a fixed position relative thereto, but does not include the ‘kingpin;”

United States Department of Transportation

Variable costs
Equipment operating expenses which vary from trip to trip. (For example, fuel, repairs, tires.)

Variable Load Suspension Axle
or VLS is an axle that can be adjusted mechanically to various weight bearing capacities and can also be mechanically raised and lowered

Every device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, except devices used exclusively upon rails or tracks.

Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT)
A unit to measure vehicle travel made by a private vehicle, such as an automobile, van, pickup truck, or motorcycle.

Vintage Vehicle
Means a motor vehicle that is 40 years old or older, from the current year, primarily a collector’s item, and used for participation in club activities, exhibitions, tours, parades, occasional transportation, and similar uses, but that is not used for general daily transportation.

Storage place for products. Principal warehouse activities include receipt of product, storage, shipment and order picking.

Western Association of State Highway Transportation Officials, Committee on Highway Transport (WASHTO, COHT)
An association of transportation officials organized to promote uniform laws, regulations and practices among member jurisdictions and other jurisdictions for the efficient movement of goods and services while ensuring the safety of all highway users and preserving the highway infrastructure.

Workers’ Compensation
Compensation for work related injuries not covered by hospitalization.